III. Conclusion

The mass incarceration of African-American males has resulted in the subordination of their constitutional rights of freedom and equal protection under the law. The struggle continues for African-American males to find their rightful place in society.

The massive disenfranchisement of African-American males in this country further isolates them from the general public. The isolation of African-American males is already evident in employment and education. The denial of voting further subordinates their status socially, economically, and politically. Without the right to vote, African-American males are devalued by the various political systems that promulgate policies that disproportionately impact their constitutional rights. Re-enfranchising African-American males will empower them to actively participate in our system of democracy. A failure to do so reverts African-American males to second class citizens, or even worse, subordinates them to a system of de facto slavery.



. Copyright 2007, Floyd Weatherspoon, Professor of Law, Capital University Law School (Columbus, Ohio).